We Knew Black Holes Have a Temperature. It Turns out They Also Have a Pressure

Within the classical idea of basic relativity, black holes are comparatively easy objects. They are often described by simply three properties: mass, cost, and rotation. However we all know that basic relativity is an incomplete idea. Quantum mechanics is most obvious within the habits of tiny objects, but it surely additionally performs a job in massive objects equivalent to black holes. To explain black holes at a quantum stage, we want a idea of quantum gravity. We don’t have an entire idea but, however what know up to now is that quantum mechanics makes black holes extra advanced, giving them properties equivalent to temperature and maybe even stress.

Temperature is maybe the most effective identified quantum property of a black gap. Due to the fuzziness of quantum particles, vitality can’t be fully sure by a black gap’s occasion horizon. Typically vitality can escape its gravitational jail by a course of referred to as Hawking radiation. The quantity of vitality that escapes is tiny, but it surely implies that black holes have a (very chilly) temperature. And which means black holes may be described when it comes to the laws of thermodynamics. For normal matter, thermodynamics describes not simply the temperature of an object, but additionally properties equivalent to stress. That’s the place this new examine is available in.

The entropy of a black gap is expounded to the world of the occasion horizon. Credit score: Jacob D. Bekenstein

The group was a thermodynamical property referred to as entropy. Entropy is a refined idea, usually described as a measure of the dysfunction of a system or the quantity of data wanted to explain a system. It pertains to the temperature of an object by the second legislation of thermodynamics. In black holes, entropy is expounded to the floor space of an occasion horizon. Physicists examine black gap entropy as a result of it may assist us reply basic questions in quantum gravity, equivalent to whether or not a black gap can destroy info.

So the group was making use of entropy equations to a easy black gap, attempting to determine what occurs if you lengthen Einstein’s equations into quantum idea, which is a typical trick referred to as the semi-classical method. Once they did this, they saved getting unusual additional phrases of their equations that they didn’t anticipate. These phrases didn’t make sense till the group checked out them when it comes to stress. It seems the additional phrases act like stress for a black gap in the identical approach that gasoline atoms in a container create stress. In different phrases, if you apply quantum idea to a black gap, you get each temperature and stress.

As with Hawking temperature, this quantum stress for a black gap is extraordinarily tiny. It’s far too small to have an effect on the sorts of black holes we see within the universe. However the truth that it exists may have actual penalties for probably the most excessive areas of the cosmos, equivalent to the massive bang. This explicit mannequin is simply too easy to use to actual techniques, however it’s an attention-grabbing clue towards a extra full idea of quantum gravity.

Reference: Xavier Calmet, et al. “Quantum gravitational corrections to the entropy of a Schwarzschild black gap.” Bodily Overview D 104.6 (2021): 066012. | We Knew Black Holes Have a Temperature. It Seems They Additionally Have a Strain


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