Opinion: One look at junk bonds tells you that stock investors now are too bullish

Right here’s one other indication that buyers now are dangerously exuberant: The junk bond unfold has not often been decrease than the place it stands at the moment.

That’s worrisome as a result of previous events of a low junk bond unfold have typically preceded durations of financial bother, if not precise downturns. Because of this, low junk bond yields sometimes don’t keep low for lengthy.

The junk bond unfold is the distinction within the yields of junk bonds and people of Treasurys of comparable maturities. It represents the compensation that buyers are demanding for incurring the extra threat of holding junk bonds as a substitute of Treasurys. When the unfold is low, like it’s now, buyers are behaving as if holding junk bonds entails comparatively little extra threat.

The chart under reveals the place the junk unfold stands at the moment relative to its historical past for the reason that Nineties. It at present is 3.4 proportion factors, well-below the 25-year common of 5.5 proportion factors. As you may see, there have been solely two different sustained durations for the reason that mid-Nineties when the junk unfold obtained as little as it’s at the moment: Previous to the bursting of the web bubble and simply previous to the Nice Monetary Disaster.


To make certain, because the chart additionally reveals, the unfold briefly obtained as little as it’s at the moment in 2014 and 2018, and neither event presaged an financial recession. However, in every case the unfold nearly instantly widened significantly, greater than doubling.

It will be significantly ominous if such a doubling had been to happen at the moment, given the delicate state of U.S. company steadiness sheets. As I’ve pointed out before, most firms are barely worthwhile; the majority of the earnings collectively earned by all publicly traded firms are concentrated within the 100 most worthwhile corporations. In 2020, for instance, amongst firms within the S&P 1500 index, this proportion was 91.8%.

Since many of the firms exterior of the highest 100 usually are not constantly worthwhile from yr to yr, lots of their debt scores are already within the “junk” class. So if the junk unfold had been to widen significantly, lots of them would have grave problem paying their debt-service prices — even when Treasury yields stayed low.

To find out the doubtless course of the junk unfold, I measured the correlations between its degree at any given time and the way a lot it rises or falls over the following quarter-, year- and two-year durations. In all instances there was an inverse correlation, which means that the junk unfold is strongly mean-reverting: excessive spreads are most of the time adopted by decrease ones, simply as low spreads are far most of the time adopted by increased ones. These correlations are all vital on the 95% confidence degree that statisticians typically use when figuring out if a sample is real.

Notably noteworthy is that correlations are stronger on the two-year horizon than on the one-year horizon. Correlations for the one-year horizon are in flip stronger than for the one-quarter horizon. That’s vital as a result of most different sentiment indicators have their best explanatory energy on the one-quarter or shorter horizon. So the junk bond unfold is a kind of uncommon contrarian indicators that may assist us gauge longer-term prospects.

Assuming the long run is just like the previous, we due to this fact can predict with some confidence that the junk unfold is more likely to be a lot increased than the place it’s at the moment with a few years. It’s not unlikely that an financial recession will happen within the subsequent couple of years, however even when that’s not the case, firms with decrease debt-quality scores will face a lot increased debt service prices. These investing in junk bonds may incur substantial losses. Plan accordingly.

Mark Hulbert is an everyday contributor to MarketWatch. His Hulbert Rankings tracks funding newsletters that pay a flat charge to be audited. He will be reached at

Extra: Why stocks still suffer bear markets even when the U.S. economy is growing

Additionally learn: As gold prices fall, there’s still not enough gloom to trigger a buy signal | Opinion: One have a look at junk bonds tells you that inventory buyers now are too bullish


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