Diabetes Symptoms: Type 1 and Type 2 Signs, Causes and Treatment

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Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realizing it because the early symptoms are difficult to spot

More than 4.9 million people in the UK have diabetes, but thousands of cases remain undiagnosed.

Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1 diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases in adults in the UK, according to Diabetes UK, while only 8% have the latter.

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Research has shown that some lifestyle changes, including diet, exercise, and weight loss, can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by about 50%.

Health experts stress that early diagnosis is crucial as complications can begin five to six years before some people realize they have type 2 diabetes, so being able to recognize the symptoms is important.

What causes diabetes?

The lifelong condition is caused by problems with the body’s production of insulin and is often linked to being overweight or inactive, or a family history of type 2 diabetes.

Diabetics need to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and have regular blood tests to ensure blood sugar levels are staying in balance. People with type 1 diabetes also need regular insulin injections throughout their lives.

Because type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, medication, which usually comes in pill form, may eventually be needed.

You are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:

  • are over 40 (or 25 for South Asians)
  • have a close relative with diabetes (e.g. a parent, brother or sister)
  • are overweight or obese
  • are of Asian, African-Caribbean or Black African origin (even if you were born in the UK)

If you’re concerned about type 2 diabetes you can check your risk on the NHS website by answering a few questions. Depending on your risk assessment, you may be able to get help from the Healthier You NHS Diabetes Prevention Program.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Many people have diabetes without even knowing it because the symptoms don’t necessarily cause you to be unwell, making it difficult to spot.

However, there are a few telltale signs to look out for that could help in the diagnosis. According to the NHS, the main symptoms include:

  • pee more than usual, especially at night
  • constantly feeling thirsty
  • feel very tired
  • Lose weight without trying
  • itching around your penis or vagina or repeated occurrences of thrush
  • Cuts or wounds that take longer to heal
  • blurred vision

Type 1 diabetes can develop rapidly over weeks or even days.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are often diagnosed after blood or urine tests.

If you’re diagnosed with type 1, a diabetes nurse will show you how to manage the condition, including how to test your own blood sugar and inject insulin.

Your GP will also discuss with you whether you need to take any medications, your diet and exercise, and other lifestyle factors such as alcohol use and smoking.

How is diabetes treated?

Most people need medication to control diabetes, and type 1 patients need to take insulin shots every day to ensure blood sugar levels are kept under control.

Some diabetes medicines can cause low blood sugar, known as hypoglycemia or hypos, and in these cases a GP may recommend checking your blood sugar regularly with a fingerprint test.

If you take insulin at least twice a day and have frequent or severe hypoglycemia, you may also be offered a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) or flash monitor worn on the skin so you can check your blood glucose levels at any time.

A healthy diet and about 2.5 hours of physical activity per week can help control blood sugar levels. The NHS recommends eating a wide range of foods, including fruit, vegetables and starchy foods such as pasta, and keeping sugar, fat and salt to a minimum.

There is evidence that short-term (about 12 weeks) a low-calorie diet (800 to 1,200 calories per day) can help with type 2 diabetes symptoms, and some people have even found that their symptoms lessen.

However, a low-calorie diet is not safe or suitable for everyone with type 2, e.g. B. those who need to take insulin, so it is important to seek medical advice before beginning this type of diet.

https://www.nationalworld.com/health/diabetes-symptoms-type-2-causes-treatment-3743267 Diabetes Symptoms: Type 1 and Type 2 Signs, Causes and Treatment

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